Iraqi Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences ( P-ISSN 1683 - 3597 E-ISSN 2521 - 3512) 2022-06-09T19:22:21+00:00 IJPS Open Journal Systems <p><em><strong>Iraqi Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences</strong> (IJPS)</em> is the official journal of the College of Pharmacy, University of Baghdad. The IJPS is a biannual specialized scientific journal which was first founded in 1979. The aim of this journal is to support scientific knowledge and encourage scientific research and publications. The IJPS provides a forum for reporting innovations, production methods, technologies, initiatives and the application of scientific knowledge to all aspects of pharmaceutical sciences, including advanced drug delivery systems, drug targeting, pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, pharmacogenomics, biopharmaceutics, drug and prodrug design, pharmaceutical analysis, drug stability, quality control, pharmaceutical engineering, and pharmacy practice . <em><strong>The journal has issued thirty volumes and fifty three issues from 1979 until December of 2021.</strong></em></p> <p><em><strong>Iraqi Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences (IJPS) </strong></em>is an open access peer-reviewed journal. Open access (OA) refers to a free and unrestricted online access to journal articles. The OA content is open to all with no access fees. For more information on Creative Commons license and the benefits of publishing an open access article</p> <p> </p> Microencapsulation of Green Coffee Beans (Coffea canephora) Extract using Whey Protein Concentrate 2021-06-30T15:39:07+00:00 Muhammad Ali Husni Akhmad Kharis Nugroho Teuku Nanda Saifullah Sulaiman Nanang Fakhrudin <p>Coffee bean contains bioactive compounds including caffeine and chlorogenic acid (CGA) that have a stimulant effect and are used for combating fatigue and drowsiness, and enhancing alertness. However, when the coffee bean was processed in the form of green coffee bean (GCB) extract, it has an unpleasant flavour and limitations instability, activity, and bioavailability. This study aimed to produce microcapsules of the GCB (<em>Coffea canephora</em>) ethanolic extract containing considerable amounts of the bioactive compounds for nutraceutical supplements. The GCB ethanolic extract was microencapsulated by spray drying using a whey protein concentrate (WPC) biopolimer. The particle size (PSA), morphology (SEM), and physicochemical characteristics (UV and LC-MS/MS), as well as radical scavenging activity (DPPH) of the microcapsule were determined. We found that the microencapsulation yield was 95.85% of the extract, with the particle mean of volume diameter was 1.312 µm (span value: 1.285 µm). The morphology of microcapsule particles was irregular microspheres with dense, smooth, wrinkle and shrivel, compact, and homogeneous surface. The microcapsule demonstrated the caffeine content of 15.25%, the CGA content of 8.52%, the total phenolic content of 1794.7 ± 77.0 mg GAE/100g and the radical scavenging activity of 179.23 µg/mL.</p> <p>The WPC can be used to encapsulate the GCB extract by using spray drying microencapsulation to produce a high yield microcapsule with a smaller and narrower particle diameter. This microencapsulation was able to engulf and package unpleasant flavor and aroma, and to preserve considerable amounts of the bioactive compounds.</p> 2022-06-09T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Iraqi Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences (IJPS) Safety Profile of Biological Drugs in Clinical Practice: A Retrospective Pharmacovigilance Study 2021-07-09T07:18:30+00:00 Elaaf Fadhil Hassan Dheyaa j Kadhim Manal m Younus <p>Biological drugs have an active substance that is made by a living organism or derived from a living organism. They are one of the important therapy options used in a wide range of diseases especially life-threatening diseases. Biological therapy opens new opportunities for treating different diseases for which drug therapy is minimal, but they have considerable differences in the safety consequences in comparison with non-biological drugs. The aim of the current study was to assess the post-marketing safety profile of biological drugs used in Iraqi hospitals by the analysis of the reported adverse drug reactions regarding their severity, seriousness, preventability, expectedness, and outcome. It is a retrospective study of the individual case safety reports from the Iraqi Pharmacovigilance Center/Ministry of Health. There were 446 individual case safety reports in the research, involving 899 adverse drug reactions. Rituximab was found to be the drug with the highest number of adverse drug reactions with 241 adverse drug reactions (26.81% out of total adverse drug reactions). Most of the adverse drug reactions were related to general disorders and administration site conditions (22.25%). Regarding severity of adverse drug reactions, the majority of adverse drug reactions were observed in moderate levels [Level 4 (26%), and Level 3 (18%)]. The severe adverse drug reactions in patients below 18 years age group were significantly higher compared to adults and elderly. Seriousness assessment showed that the majority of adverse drug reactions were serious (52%). Rituximab was the drug for which the highest number of serious adverse drug reactions was reported (41.28% of total serious adverse drug reactions), Most of the adverse drug reactions (66%) were probably preventable. Fatality outcome was reported for 3% of adverse drug reactions while 43% of adverse drug reactions were recovered/resolved.</p> 2022-06-09T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Iraqi Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences (IJPS) Improvement of the Solubility and Dissolution Characteristics of Risperidone via Nanosuspension Formulations 2021-07-14T17:03:46+00:00 Hayder Emad Shaimaa Nazar Abd-Alhammid <p>Risperidone is an atypical antipsychotic drug that is used for treating schizophrenia, bipolar mania, and autism. Risperidone rebalances dopamine and serotonin to improve thinking, mood, and behavior by working on dopamine and serotonin α<sub>2</sub>receptor antagonism. Risperidone has poor solubility and high permeability through the intestine, so it belongs to Biopharmaceutical Classification System (BCS) class II exhibits poor oral biopharmaceutical properties.</p> <p> The aim of the present work was to improve solubility and dissolution of Risperidone by preparing nanosuspension using different stabilizers and different solvents‎ in a method known as solvent-antisolvent precipitation method. Twenty-eight formulas were prepared and evaluated particle size, PDI, (EE), zeta potential, and <em>in-vitro </em>dissolution studies. The results showed that particle size of nanosuspension was nanosized for all formulations. The best formula (F13) has particle size (40.9) nm containing a (Soluplus) as a stabilizer in ratio 1:1 with drug by using acetone as a solvent in ratio 1:5 with water which was act as anti-solvent with stirring speed 1000 rpm and E.E % was 98%. For self-dispersible dry nanosuspension, the selected formula (F13) shown fast dispersibility of less than 1 min. and complete <em>in-vitro</em> dissolution to about 30 min. in 0.1N HCl. XRD and DSC indicate the transformation of a crystalline form of risperidone into an amorphous form. The stability studies of the best formula (F13) suggest that estimated shelf life was about 4 years.</p> <p>In conclusion; the formulation of poorly water-soluble risperidone as nanosuspension significantly improved the dissolution rate of drug and enhanced its solubility.</p> 2022-06-09T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Iraqi Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences (IJPS) Effectiveness of Ombitasvir with Paritaprevir/Ritonavir plus Ribavirin on the Treatment of Naïve Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Genotype 4 2021-07-26T15:25:12+00:00 Mohammed Abdel-GAbbar Mohammed Alkot Adel Abdel-Moneim <p><strong>Background</strong> Direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) combination therapies from various mechanisms of action and families have been revolutionized the management landscape of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV). Ombitasvir, paritaprevir with ritonavir (OBV/PTV/r) ± ribavirin (RBV) is approved to treat HCV genotype 4 (GT4) infection. Here, our objective was to delineate the efficacy and safety of OBV/PTV/r plus RBV in treating of Egyptian naïve patients infected with HCV GT4.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong> a cohort of 100 Egyptian patients infected with HCV GT4 was allocated and administered orally OBV/PTV/r with RBV. The primary endpoint of our study was a sustained virological response (HCV RNA &lt; 12 IU/mL) 12 weeks after the cessation of the treatment (SVR12). This study is registered with, number <u><a href="">NCT04378608</a>.</u></p> <p><strong>Results</strong> Among treatment naïve patients with OBV/PTV/r+ RBV, SVR12 rates achieved 97% (97/100) in overall patients. Regarding treatment failure, the regimen recorded 3 % had treatment failure (0 null-responses, 3 relapses). However, the most frequently common adverse events recorded were a headache (28%), fatigue (18%), asthenia (23%), nausea (19%) and dyspnea (14%).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong> The interferon-free regimen combination of OBV/PTV/r plus RBV achieved excellent SVR12 rates, 97%, with virologic outcome failures 3%, and it was generally safe and well tolerated for treating naïve patients infected with HCV GT4.</p> 2022-06-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Iraqi Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences (IJPS) Study the Effects of Anadrol Overdose on Liver Function in Male Rats 2021-07-24T06:39:30+00:00 Zahraa Sami Mohammed Ahmed Obaid Hossain <p> </p> <p>Anadrol (oxymetholone) is an active androgenic anabolic steroid that has been clinically studied in numerous diseases since the 1960s. It is used in the treatment of anemia and the replacement of male sex steroids. Unfortunately, in attempts to improve physical performance, Anadrol could be misused by athletes, that can lead to poisoning contributes to hepatotoxicity.</p> <p>The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of anadrol on the liver function in rat model, via assessment of liver enzymes and histopathological study.</p> <p>A forty male rats, weights about (200-300 gm), aged 8-12 weeks, after acclimatization, the rats were ‎randomly divided into four groups (10 rats in each group) as follow: control group (in which all rats were administered normal saline (NS) via oral gavage), anadrol 10 mg/kg (Iran-Tehran Company) group (in which all rats were administered anadrol 10mg/kg via oral gavage), anadrol 20 mg/kg group (in which all rats were administered anadrol 20mg/kg via oral gavage), and anadrol 30 mg/kg group (in which all rats were administered anadrol 30mg/kg via oral gavage), the oral administration had continued for 8 weeks in single daily dose regimen. At the end of study liver function enzymes such as alanine aminotransferase &amp; aspartate aminotransferase were measured via chemical analysis. Then histopathological study was done on the liver tissue in the four experimental groups.</p> <p>Male rats that treated with anadrol displayed high level of liver enzymes, including as alanine aminotransferase &amp; aspartate aminotransferase, as compared with control group. On the other hand, histopathological study exhibited significant injurious changes in the hepatic tissue in anadrol groups comparing with control.</p> <p>When anadrol given in high doses results in hepatic injury, that can be cleared via elevated levels of hepatic enzymes and liver histopathological changes. </p> 2022-06-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Iraqi Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences (IJPS) Understanding the Experience of Hospital Pharmacists with the Effectiveness, Safety, Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting and Interchangeability of Biopharmaceutical Medicines 2021-08-13T16:41:41+00:00 Ali Azeez Al-Jumaili Hiba Leith Fahmi <p>The study objectives were to 1) explore the real-world experience of hospital pharmacists with the differences in effectiveness safety, and interchangeability between biosimilar medicines and their reference biological counterparts, 2) reveal pharmacist recommendations to enhance the safety of biopharmaceutical medicines in public hospitals.</p> <p>The study has a mixed-method design where the core component was qualitative (interviews) and the supplemental component was quantitative (adverse drug reaction, ADR, reports). This qualitative component included semi-structured (mostly face-to-face) interviews involving hospital pharmacists from different hospitals with experience with biological or biosimilar medicines. The interviews were conducted from Nov 2020 through Feb 2021. Thematic analyses were used to analyze qualitative data generated from the interviews.</p> <p>The study sample included 25 pharmacists from ten governmental hospitals in Baghdad, Iraq. The pharmacists were 21 women and 4 men. Because most pharmacists had a short experience with biosimilar medications, they were unsure about their effectiveness and safety. Most pharmacists preferred reference biological over biosimilar medicines because of their effectiveness. However, they believed that initial prescribing and switching between a reference and counterpart biosimilar rely on their availability. The pharmacists tended to underreport biopharmaceutical ADRs.</p> <p>The non-sustainable supply of the same biopharmaceutical medicines in public hospitals negatively impacted pharmacist evaluation of the effectiveness and safety of biosimilar medicines. Both pharmacist interviews and the Iraqi Pharmacovigilance Center (IqPhvC) data showed under-reporting of biopharmaceutical ADRs. Medicine procurement in healthcare settings should focus on sustainably securing high-quality biopharmaceuticals rather than looking only at costs to enhance patient clinical outcomes. Providing pharmacist training, electronic reporting, promoting documentation, and following up with patients is pivotal to prevent, monitor and treat their ADRs.</p> 2022-06-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Iraqi Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences (IJPS) The Ameliorative Effect of Fimasartan against Methotrexate-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Rats 2021-08-14T08:04:25+00:00 Maryam Rasheed Abd Ali Faris Hassan <p>Drug-induced acute kidney injury is a serious disorder. Oxidative stress has a key role in its initiation and progression. In this study, the possible ameliorative effect of fimasartan against methotrexate-induced nephrotoxicity was investigated in comparison with α-tocopherol in rats. Wistar rats were allocated into six groups and treated as follows: <strong>group Ӏ</strong> received water on a daily basis for 8 successive days; <strong>group ӀӀ</strong> received methotrexate (20 mg/kg) on day 1, followed by water for 7 successive days; <strong>group ӀӀӀ</strong> received fimasartan (3 mg/kg/day) for 7 successive days; <strong>group IV</strong> received α-tocopherol (1 g/kg/day) for 7 successive days; <strong>group V</strong> received methotrexate (20 mg/kg) on day 1, followed by fimasartan (3 mg/kg/day) for 7 successive days; and <strong>group VI</strong> received methotrexate (20 mg/kg) on day 1, followed by α-tocopherol (1 g/kg/day) for 7 successive days. Finally, after euthanization of each animal by diethyl ether, the samples were collected for analysis. Administration of fimasartan and α-tocopherol resulted in a significant decline in serum creatinine and urea, a significant reduction of renal malondialdehyde, and a significant elevation of renal superoxide dismutase-1 compared to the methotrexate-treated rats. In conclusion, fimasartan has ameliorative effects, comparable to those of α-tocopherol, on methotrexate-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. </p> 2022-06-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Iraqi Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences (IJPS) Adherence to Different Treatment Modalities among Patients on Maintenance Hemodialysis 2021-08-21T14:40:11+00:00 Maha Amer Abdul-Jabbar Dheyaa J. Kadhim <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; End Stage Renal Disease is a well-known global public health problem. Maintenance hemodialysis is considered a life-saving treatment for patients with such disease. This treatment method that requires patients to be adherent to hemodialysis attendance, dietary and fluid recommendations as well as adherence to prescribed medications to ensure success. The aim of the current study was to assess adherence, perception, and counseling among hemodialysis patients to different modalities of treatment (fluid restriction, dietary recommendations, medications, and hemodialysis schedules). A cross-sectional study carried out on hemodialysis patients who attended to the dialysis centers at al- Karama teaching hospital and Madinat Al- Imamain Al- Kadhimain teaching hospital. The &nbsp;Arabic version <sup>&nbsp;</sup>of the “ end stage renal disease-adherence questionnaire ” was used in assessing adherence, perception, and counseling. The number of recruited patients were 200 adult patients (113 men and 87 women). The average of the total adherence score lies within the moderate adherence (984.9 ±174.2). Patients adherence to the hemodialysis session was good as representing by high scores of adherence for (hemodialysis-attendance, episode of hemodialysis-shortening and duration of hemodialysis-shortening) while the lowest adherence score (126.0 out of 200) was for following the fluid restriction. In terms of adherence categories, the majority (61%) of the patients had good adherence, 33.0% had moderate adherence with 6% had poor adherence. Age had significant positive association with the total adherence score. All patients perceived their hemodialysis management as highly/very important. On the other hand, some patients perceived their adherence to the recommended diet as moderately (7%) or less important (7%). Regarding the frequency of counseling received by patients for different treatment modalities. &nbsp;The negative answers represented 58.5% of answers about the how important is to follow a proper diet, and 25.0% of answers about the importance of taking prescribed medications as ordered. Accordingly, the overall adherence of hemodialysis patients to different treatment modalities was less than optimum with fluid and diet adherence representing most challenging tasks in the health care of hemodialysis patients. &nbsp;</p> 2022-06-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Iraqi Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences (IJPS) Nasal Carriage of Vancomycin- and Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus among Intermediate Students of Urban and Rural Schools of Muthanna Province in Iraq 2021-08-20T15:38:57+00:00 Saad Muslim Hantoosh <p><em>Staphylococcus aureus is one of the common causative agents of infections, from asymptomatic carriers to healthy individuals. It can colonize anterior nares of carriers with a high capability to resist different antibiotics. Students are susceptible to bacterial infection due to some factors, including poor health habits and surrounding school conditions. This study screened the rate of vancomycin- and methicillin- resistant Staphylococcus aureus nose carriers among secondary students in rural and urban schools and its association with some sociodemographic factors. The study sample included 300 male/female students aged 15-20 years from 12 schools of rural and urban areas during the period from November 2020 till May 2021. It was found that males are 2.3 times more of MRSA nose carriage and the rate of infections was higher in rural schools than urban whether among males or females. The prevalence of MRSA was 72/300 (24%) among students with 15/72 (21%) MDR-MRSA isolates with high resistance to Clindamycin and Erythromycin at rate 46% and 42% respectively, and a resistance ranging between (20-26) % for Gentamycin, Levofloxacin, Trimethoprim/Sulfamethoxazole, Rifampin, and Nitrofurantoin with high sensitivity to Vancomycin at 4% of resistance. There was no significant association between MRSA incidence with both medication and chronic diseases despite the 19% of students were self-medicating. Most schools were suffering from a shortage of potable water, disinfectants, and first aid materials. Students lack health awareness about transmissible diseases with unhealthy habits spread among students, as specialized health teams did not visit most schools.</em></p> 2022-06-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Iraqi Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences (IJPS) Using Phone Calls to Promote Community Pharmacist Counselling during COVID-19 Pandemic in Baghdad, Iraq 2021-08-20T15:39:54+00:00 Susan Tofiq Hameed Zinah Mudhafar Anwer <p>Drug consultation is an important part of pharmaceutical care. mobile phone call or text message can serve as an easy, effective, and implementable alternative to improving medication adherence and clinical outcomes by providing the information needed significantly for people with chronic illnesses like diabetes and hypertension particularly during pandemics like COVID-19 pandemic.</p> 2022-06-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Iraqi Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences (IJPS) Investigation of Lipid Polymer Hybrid Nanocarriers for Oral Felodipine Delivery: Formulation, Method, In-vitro and Ex-vivo Evaluation 2021-08-30T14:49:26+00:00 Hayder Kadhim Drais Ahmed Abbas Hussein <p><img src="/public/site/images/aldeera/Capture2.PNG"></p> 2022-06-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Iraqi Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences (IJPS) Development of 5-FU Loaded poly lactic-co-glycolic acid Nanoparticles for Treatment of Lung Cancer 2021-09-04T14:34:28+00:00 Sankha Bhattacharya <p>Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) accounts for about 84% of all lung cancer types diagnosed so far. Every year, regardless of gender, the NSCLC targets many communities worldwide. 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is a uracil-analog anticancer compound. This drug tends to annihilate multiple tumour cells. But 5-FU's most significant obstacle is that it gets very easily metabolized in the blood, which eventually leads to lower anticancer activity. Therfore a perfect drug delivery system is needed to overcome all the associated challenges.</p> <p>In this experiment, an attempt was made to prepare 5-FU loaded poly lactic-co-glycolic acid nanoparticles using solvent evaporation method and subsequently observed the effect of molecular weight of poly lactic-co-glycolic acid, loading of poly lactic-co-glycolic acid, sonication period on the cytotoxic effect of 10 % w/w 5-FU loaded PLGA nanoparticles against human A549 Isogenic cell line.</p> <p>In this experiment, two points are more evident: first, poly lactic-co-glycolic acid has a major impact on 5-FU release due to higher degradation and rate of diffusion in nanoparticle solution; and second, nanoparticles with a larger surface area and smaller particle size have a lower half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC<sub>50</sub>) value. The IC<sub>50 </sub>of all nanoparticles was significantly higher (p=0.0145) than that of the free 5-FU controlled group (8.34Nm). The cytotoxicity would be greater if the IC<sub>50 </sub>value was lower. Nanoparticles with an 18-minute sonication time was found to be more cytotoxic than those with PLGA nanoparticles containing 12% polyvinyl alcohol.</p> <p><strong> </strong>In this experiment 10% w/w 5-FU loaded poly lactic-co-glycolic acid nanoparticles was prepared for laboratory research to translational research for the treatment of lung cancer.</p> 2022-06-17T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Iraqi Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences ( P-ISSN 1683 - 3597 E-ISSN 2521 - 3512) Lornoxicam-Loaded Cubosomes: - Preparation and In vitro Characterization. 2021-09-05T14:48:42+00:00 Rasha Saadi Younus Alkawak Nawal A. Rajab <p>Cubosomes are nanosized structures self-assembled nanostructured materials used for controlling the release of the entrapped drug molecule. Lornoxicam (LXM) is a potent analgesic nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAID) drug with a short half-life (3-4) hours. The present study aims to prepare LXM-loaded cubosomes with well-defined morphology, particle size, PDI, high entrapment efficiency, sustained drug release, and high zeta potential value, as a transdermal drug delivery system.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Twelve formulas of LXM-loaded cubosomal dispersions were prepared by a solvent dilution method using Glyceryl monooleate ( GMO) as polar lipid with different stabilizers as Pluronic® F127 or tween 80 and different types of hydrotrope as ethanol or propylene glycol. These formulas were evaluated for their particle size analysis &amp; PDI, E.E. %, and in-vitro drug release to select a group of the optimum formulas, that further characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and zeta potential analyzer to select the optimum dispersion. FTIR study was used to investigate the compatibility of the drug with excipients.</p> <p>The obtained results indicated that F3, composed of GMO, Pluronic® F127, ethanol, drug, and phosphate buffer solution pH 7.4 in the following per cents 7.28%, 1.82%, 8%, 2%, and 80.9% w/w, respectively, prepared in 20min agitation period, as the optimum formula for its high E.E. % (94.30±0.002%), small particle size (16.3±0.19nm), low PDI&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; (0.06±0.02), and high zeta potential value (-65.9±0.05mV), and well-defined cubic structure. FTIR study indicated no interaction between LXM and other formulas components.</p> <p>This study's conclusion illustrated that LXM-loaded cubosomal dispersion could be considered a promising nano-carrier for transdermal drug delivery.</p> 2022-06-17T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Iraqi Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences ( P-ISSN 1683 - 3597 E-ISSN 2521 - 3512) Evaluation the Effectiveness of Phenolic Compound of Salvia Frigida on Induced Atopic Dermatitis in Experimental Mice 2021-08-31T14:57:54+00:00 Zahra Hassan Tuka Hassan Ahmed Abu-Rghif <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p>To evaluate the effectiveness of Phenolic Compound of <em>Salvia Frigida</em> on induced atopic dermatitis (AD) of mice. Forty mice were included in the study, divided in to four groups (10 mice/group): apparently healthy, induced AD without treatment, induced AD treated with tacrolimus 0.1% ointment, and induced AD treated with Phenolic Compound of <em>Salvia Frigida</em> cream 5%. Examination of histopathology was done and skin homogenates levels also measured. Levels of WBC, Eosinophil, skin tissue homogenate of IL-13 and IL-4, serum IgE, and histopathological scores were significantly increased among induced non treated AD group in comparison with control group. Comparisons of non-treated induced AD group with <em>Salvia Frigida</em> &nbsp;or Tacrolimus treated groups; shows a significant reduction in the levels of all studied parameters’ (WBC, Eosinophil, skin tissue homogenate of IL4- and IL-13, serum IgE, observational severity score, and histopathological scores) after the application of Tacrolimus 0.1% ointment. While after application of phenolic compound cream 5%, its shows a significant reduction in the levels of all parameters except these of (eosinophil, IgE, and IL-13). Comparison between the effect of topical application of tacrolimus and phenolic compound on the studied variables shows that the levels of epidermal thickness was significantly lower after application of phenolic compound among studied groups, while the levels of WBC and inflammatory cell were significantly lower after application of tacrolimus among studied groups. Using of these therapeutic agents that targeting IgE, IL-4 and IL-13 will probably useful in treatment of AD.</p> 2022-06-17T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Iraqi Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences ( P-ISSN 1683 - 3597 E-ISSN 2521 - 3512) Estimation the Safety of Parenteral Resveratrol in Mice 2021-09-18T08:22:12+00:00 Rehab AM. Jawad Hayder B Sahib <p>&nbsp;&nbsp; Resveratrol is polyphenolic compound has many biochemical and biological effects on several organs. Therefore, resveratrol can be used to treat many diseases. The aim was to evaluate resveratrol safety when used in a parenteral single bolus dose. This study was conducted on 60 mice (30 males and 30 females). Each male and female mice divided into 6 groups (five mice per group). All mice groups given 1% DMSO and five different doses of resveratrol (5, 2.5, 1.25, 0.625, 0.312) gm/kg intraperitonially given to five groups respectively. The mice were continuously monitored during 14 days. The number of deaths, changes in general behavior, changes in physiological activity, and signs of toxicity were reported. On day 15 blood was collected using a jugular vein puncture to obtain blood samples for hematological and biochemical analysis. All mice were euthanized under anesthesia. The heart, lung, liver, kidney, and gonads were dissected and sent for histopathological study. The result showed that at dose 0.312gm/kg neither signs of toxicity nor death were detected. The LD50 dose was 1.18 g/kg for female and 1.07 g/kg for male mice. The body weight change, biochemical and hematological assay, revealed that at doses 1.25 g/kg,0.625,0.312 g/kg for both sexes no significant changes had reported in comparison with a control group (p?0.05). Histopathological examination revealed that at doses 1.25 g/kg for both sexes no significant tissue changes had reported in comparison with a control group (p?0.05). In conclusion resveratrol has dose-dependent toxicity when used intraperitoneally in Swiss Albino mice and the non-observed adverse effect level at dose 0.312 g/kg.</p> 2022-06-17T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Iraqi Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences ( P-ISSN 1683 - 3597 E-ISSN 2521 - 3512) Isolation of beta-sitosterol and evaluation of antioxidant Activity of Iraqi Campsis grandiflora flowers. 2021-09-24T15:30:33+00:00 Sara Saad Hassoon Ibrahim Saleh Abbas Bahir Abdul Razzaq Mshimesh <p><em>Campsis grandiflora</em> (Bignoniaceae) is a fast growing deciduous climber, the dried flowers have been used as a carminative, blood tonic, and febrifuge in Chinese traditional medicine. This plant has an anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-depressant, and anti-bacterial effect; with a beneficial role in stagnant blood and endometriosis conditions. In this study, the detection of beta-sitosterol in the hexane extract of Iraqi <em>C.grandiflora</em> flowers was performed using thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC); while the isolation done by preparative layer chromatography then structure elucidation of isolated compound was done by FTIR and <sup>1</sup>HNMR. Furthermore, assessment of the anti-oxidant activity of the ethyl acetate extract of Iraqi <em>C.grandiflora</em> flowers using three different methods and total flavonoid content, then measuring the pearson’s correlation coefficient between these methods. The results showed that the hexane extract of Iraqi <em>C.grandiflora</em> flowers contain beta-sitosterol compound and the ethyl acetate extract of this plant possesses an excellent anti-oxidant effect using the single-electron transfer (SET) pathway in scavenging the free radicals, and this activity attributed to the potent antioxidant i.e. polyphenols.</p> 2022-06-18T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Iraqi Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences ( P-ISSN 1683 - 3597 E-ISSN 2521 - 3512) Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Gingko Biloba Extract in Cotton Pellet-Induced Granuloma in Rats: A comparative Study with Prednisolone and Dexamethasone 2021-09-21T17:09:45+00:00 Ahmed Azad Kareem Tavga Ahmed Aziz Zheen Aorahman Ahmed Hemn Hassan Othman Saad Abdulrahman Hussain <p>The current study was designed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of GKB in the rat model of granulomatous inflammation. Thirty rats were distributed into five groups:&nbsp; The first group served as negative control group that received distilled water (DW) only without inducting inflammation, positive control group; treated with DW with the induction of inflammation and they were assigned to cotton pellet-induced granuloma, ginkgo biloba (GKB) treated group (200mg/kg/day), dexamethasone-treated group (1mg/kg), and Prednisolone treated group (5mg/kg). All the treatments were given orally for seven consecutive days. &nbsp;On day eight, the rats were anesthetized and the pellets together with granulation tissue were carefully removed and made free from extraneous tissue. The weight and the percent of the exudate and granuloma were determined and samples of the tissues were sent for histopathological examination. Blood samples were collected by cardiac puncture and used for the analysis of the inflammatory markers: TNF-alfa, IL10, VCAM-1, and hs-CRP. The study revealed a significant reduction in the weight and the percent of exudate (p-value = 0.019), (17%) and granuloma (p-value = 0.013), (20%) by GKB which was comparable to that produced by prednisolone. All the treatment groups showed a significant reduction in serum TNF-?, VCAM-1, and hs-CRP concentration compared with the positive control. The histopathological finding revealed pronounced improvement. In the current study, GKB was effective in attenuating the level of inflammation by decreasing the exudate, granuloma, and inflammatory markers. The underlying mechanisms could be the inhibitory effect on the expression of the inflammatory cytokines and endothelial adhesion molecule. These findings suggest GKB as a good contender to be tested in the treatment of inflammatory diseases.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2022-06-18T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Iraqi Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences ( P-ISSN 1683 - 3597 E-ISSN 2521 - 3512) Some Pro and Anti-Inflammatory Cytokines in Children with Tonsillitis and their Correlations with Vitamin D Deficiency 2021-10-03T07:24:10+00:00 Zainab Alhakeem Najwan Kaisar Fakree Ahmed AbdulSamad Muhsen Nuha Majeed Hashim <p>Inflammation of the tonsils could be described as acute tonsillitis, mainly due to infection. Recurrent tonsillitis could be defined as 3-7 episodes during the first 3 years of age. Vitamin D, which is a neuro-hormone with pleiotropic biological activities may modulate the immune response by alleviation, and stimulation of Th1 and Th2 cell proliferation, respectively, that influence the stimulation, synthesis, and secretion of both pro and anti-inflammatory cytokines. In this study we aimed to shed light on the levels of vitamin D in children with different episodes of tonsillitis in association with levels of interleukins (TNFα, IL-2, IL-4, IL-10). Blood samples were collected from 48 participants in 3 groups: control, acute tonsillitis (1-2 episodes/year), chronic tonsillitis (more than 7 episodes/year), serum was separated and the levels of Vitamin D, TNFα, IL-2, IL-4 and IL-10 were estimated using ELISA technique. Vitamin D decreased significantly as the episodes of tonsillitis increased, with level of 16.38± 2.41ng/ml in acute and, 14.13± 2.15 ng/ml in chronic tonsillitis as compared to control (30.91± 2.31 ng/ml), while pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNFα and IL-2) significantly increased (46.88± 14.05 and 44.55± 9.24, 1267.25± 111.85 and 1191.72± 121.52 ng/ml, respectively) as compared to control (9.45 and 138.48 ng/ml respectively). Anti-inflammatory (IL-4, IL-10) cytokines in control group were (243.08± 28.72 and 24.27± 1.83 ng/ml, respectively), which increased non-significantly in acute and chronic tonsillitis (302.76± 38.93, 290.12± 44.69 and 28.16± 2.01, 26.29± 1.99 ng/ml, respectively). Significant direct correlation was observed between the levels of vitamin D and anti-inflammatory cytokines in chronic tonsillitis (P&lt;0.05). In conclusion, deficiency of vitamin D may affect the number of episodes of tonsillitis in children by modulation of the secretion of some cytokines.</p> 2022-06-18T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Iraqi Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences ( P-ISSN 1683 - 3597 E-ISSN 2521 - 3512) Development of novel paracetamol/naproxen co-crystals with an improvement in naproxen solubility. 2021-10-04T20:07:29+00:00 Amal Fakhrulddin Al-Dulaimi Myasar Mohammed Al-Kotaji Faris Thanoon Abachi <p>Co-crystals are new solid forms of drugs that could resolve more than one problem associated with drugs formulations like solubility, stability, bioavailability, mechanical and tableting properties. A preliminary theoretical study for estimating the possible bonding between the co-crystal components (paracetamol and naproxen) was performed using the ChemOffice program. The results revealed a high possibility for bonding between paracetamol and naproxen and indicated the ability of molecular mechanics study to predict the co-crystal design.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; In this work, four different methods were used for the preparation of three different ratios 1:1, 2:1, and 1:2 of paracetamol:naproxen co-crystals. The four methods are liquid-assisted grinding, solvent evaporation method, ultrasonic-assisted co-crystallization, and microwave-assisted co-crystallization. The characterization of the prepared co-crystal was performed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Thermogravimetric Analysis, Differential scanning calorimetry, Powder X-Ray diffraction, and Field emission scanning electron microscopy.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The results showed that the most successful method for co-crystal production was solvent evaporation methods. The FTIR and DSC results indicated the formation of paracetamol-naproxen co-crystals when prepared by using the solvent evaporation method in the three ratios 1:1 (N1), 2:1 (N2), and 1:2 (N3). Moreover, the PXRD results confirm the previous conclusions.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; A solubility study was conducted to compare the water solubility of pure paracetamol and naproxen with co-crystals solubility. The naproxen solubility was improved by more than two times in (1:1) and (1:2) paracetamol/naproxen co-crystals.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; To conclude, this work succeeded in formation of new paracetamol/naproxen co-crystals, which can be considered as a new promising technique for formulation of these two drugs with an obvious enhancement in naproxen solubility and crystallinity. This could be exploited in preparation of tablets with possible enhancement in dissolution and bioavailability, however, further work is needed to prove this assumption.</p> 2022-06-18T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Iraqi Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences ( P-ISSN 1683 - 3597 E-ISSN 2521 - 3512) Effect of Oral Administration of Valerian Extract at Different Doses on Pharmacokinetic Parameters of Carbamazepine in Rabbits 2021-09-24T17:21:32+00:00 Issam Mohammed Abushammala <p>Carbamazepine (CBZ) is a narrow therapeutic index drug used in the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia and psychiatric disorders. Valerian (VAL) is a popular herbal product which should be prescribed to treat insomnia and anxiety. The study was designed to investigate the presence of significant pharmacokinetic (PK) interaction between Valerian (VAL) at different concentrations on Carbamazepine (CBZ) pharmacokinetic parameters in healthy male rabbits. In an <em>in vivo</em>, parallel-randomized controlled trial, the rabbits in three groups "first (control), second and third" were given oral doses of CBZ (50 mg/kg), for "second and third" groups (as test groups) rabbits were given (20 and 40 mg/kg/day) of the VAL respectively, as suspension in normal saline for eight consecutive days. On the eighth day, CBZ was co-administered an hour after adding the last dose of VAL suspension. Venous blood samples (1.0-1.5 mL) were obtained from rabbits' ears' marginal vein at predetermined different periods. The plasma of this blood separation was done using centrifugation and stored at -80°C, prior to analysis by using CBZ chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay detection kit. Different PK parameters such as C<sub>max</sub>, t<sub>max</sub>, t<sub>½, </sub>k<sub>e</sub>, AUC<sub>0-24</sub> and AUC<sub>0-∞</sub> were determined for the three groups, applying Statistical testing (ANOVA). The results showed statistical insignificant differences for all PK parameters among the three groups with (<em>p</em>˃0.05). The findings showed that VAL at both concentrations is not likely to interfere with PK parameters related to CBZ, Further confirmation in humans shoud be done before these findings are applied to patient care.</p> 2022-06-18T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Iraqi Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences ( P-ISSN 1683 - 3597 E-ISSN 2521 - 3512) Anti-Angiogenic Screening of Moringa Oleifera Leaves Extract Using Chorioallantonic Membrane Assay 2021-10-10T07:33:20+00:00 Nisha Shri Chengama Raju Wong Wing Kei <p><strong>Background: </strong>Angiogenesis is defined as the formation of new blood vessels. However, angiogenesis in cancer will lead to tumour growth and metastasis. Therefore, anti-angiogenesis is one of the ways to slow down growth and spreading of tumour. <em>Moringa oleifera</em> is also known as a “Miracle tree” which has high nutritive value and various therapeutics effect in different parts of the plant. This study aims to determine the anti-angiogenic property of <em>Moringa oleifera</em> leaves extract by using chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay. <strong>Materials and Methods: </strong>The extracts were prepared by decoction method using methanol and water. The qualitative phytochemical screening was carried out for both methanol and aqueous extracts. The fertilised chicken eggs were divided into six groups which include negative control group (phosphate-buffer saline with pH 7.4), positive control group (sunitinib), 50% and 100% methanol extract, 50% and 100% aqueous extract. The anti-angiogenic effect of <em>Moringa oleifera</em> leaves extract was determined by calculating the number and percentage decrease in blood vessels in post-24 and post-48 hours of treatment. <strong>Results: </strong>Statistical analysis by one-way ANOVA has shown significant (p&lt;0.05) percentage reduction in the blood vessels between each treatment group after 48 hours of treatment. Among all the extracts, 100% aqueous extract of <em>Moringa oleifera</em> was found to have highest anti-angiogenic effect with the greater percentage decrease in blood vessels (81.33%) in post-48 hours of treatment. Furthermore, the anti-angiogenic effect of <em>Moringa oleifera</em> leaves was found to increased when the concentration of the <em>Moringa oleifera</em> extract was increased. <strong>Conclusion: </strong><em>Moringa oleifera</em> leaves with various phytochemicals was found to possess anti-angiogenic potential.</p> 2022-06-18T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Iraqi Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences ( P-ISSN 1683 - 3597 E-ISSN 2521 - 3512) Factors Impacting Hypertension Awareness among Hypertensive Population: A Quantitative Study in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Malaysia 2021-10-10T07:31:02+00:00 Ali Haider Mohammed Bassam Abdul Rasool Hassan Azyyati Mohd Suhaimi Ali Blebil Juman Dujaili Abdulrasool M. Wayyes <p><strong> </strong>There are obstacles to high levels of hypertension awareness that are embedded in gender, income and lifestyle habits which need to be addressed leading to high levels of undiagnosed and uncontrolled hypertension. This study aimed to explore the various factors which affect hypertension awareness among a hypertensive population in a tertiary care hospital.</p> <p> A quantitative study was conducted among hypertensive patients at a tertiary care hospital in Selangor, Malaysia. A validated and translated questionnaire was utilised as a data collection tool. Descriptive and inferential statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 25.</p> <p>A thousand participants (female n=621, male n= 379) were recruited, and their mean age is 48± 11.09 years old. Approximately half of respondents were not informed by their doctor that they have hypertension. More than half of respondents were unaware about the normal range of systolic and diastolic. Female gender, Chinese race, urban resident, older adults, and tertiary education level are the most significant factors that have a great influence on the level of awareness among hypertensive population.</p> <p> Hypertension awareness needs to be addressed from systemic point of view to solve the growing barriers to accessing correct information about the disease. Health care providers and authorities need to regulate the manner in which information on mortal diseases is presented to the public to reduce incidence of malpractice.</p> 2022-06-18T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Iraqi Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences ( P-ISSN 1683 - 3597 E-ISSN 2521 - 3512) Evaluation of the Detrimental Effects of some Antiepileptic Drugs on the Height and Weight of Children with Epilepsy 2021-10-15T15:02:52+00:00 Muhammad Abdulgafoor Ahmed AlKataan Abdullah Shakir Mahmood Aseel S. Al Mallakhdeer <p>Growth is a multifactorial process influenced by genetic, nutritional, hormonal, psychosocial and other factors including the general health of a child. Epilepsy defined as a chronic condition characterized by recurrent clinical events or epileptic seizures, which occur in the absence of a metabolic or toxic disease the drugs that use in the treatment of this condition can affect patients growth due to their mechanisms of action. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of some antiepileptic drugs on growth (height and weight) in children with epilepsy. This work involved 51 newly diagnosed children with a different form of epilepsy (Generalized, absent and partial). Patients divided into three groups according to the treatment (group one patients on Carbamazepine monotherapy with dose mean 13.3 ± 4.8 mg/Kg, group two patients on Valproic acid monotherapy with a dose of 14.4± 3.3 mg/kg and the last group involve patient on combined therapy Carbamazepine 10.8±5.8 plus 19.7± 8.8 of Valproic acid. Patients age range from 5-11 years, with an Initial BMI range of 12-20. The results of this work showed that Carbamazepine monotherapy caused no significant affected on both BMI values after 6 and 12 months of treatment (p&gt;0.05). Valproic acid monotherapy significantly elevated BMI after 6 and 12 months of treatment (p&gt;0.01). Combined therapy showed no significate effect on BMI. The patient’s centile height significantly elevated after 6 and 12 months of Valproic acid (p&lt;0.01) compared to the normal growth according to the growth chart. While both Carbamazepine and combined therapy showed no significant change in comparison to the normal growth according to the growth chart (p&gt;0.05). In conclusion, children with epilepsy who use antiepileptic drugs need restricted monitor policy for their growth, especially those on Valproic acid.</p> 2022-06-18T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Iraqi Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences ( P-ISSN 1683 - 3597 E-ISSN 2521 - 3512) Effect of Curcumin at Various Doses on the Pharmacokinetic Profile of Tacrolimus in Healthy Rabbits 2021-10-14T14:30:24+00:00 Issam Mohammed Abushammala Belal Mohammed Mqat Abdallah Mohammed Hamdan <p>The purpose of present study is to evaluate the effect of co-administration of curcumin (CUR) at various doses on the pharmacokinetic (PK) profile of tacrolimus (TAC), a CYP 3A4 substrate in healthy male rabbits. Healthy male rabbits (n=18) were employed in an in vivo, parallel-randomized study. Three groups of rabbits were selected and separated: The rabbits in the first group (control group) received 1 mg/kg TAC orally. Blood samples (1.5-2 mL) were drawn from rabbits' ear marginal veins at the following time frames:&nbsp; 15.0, 30.0, 45.0, 60.0, 90.0, 120.0, 150.0, 180.0 and 300 minutes after TAC administration post dosing and analyzed by using a TAC chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (CLIA) detection kit. In the second and third groups (test groups), rabbits received TAC (1mg/kg) at identical conditions as in the control group with volumes equivalent to (30 and 90 mg/kg/day) of prepared CUR suspension in normal saline for seven continuous days. Blood samples from the control group were obtained on the eighth day. Non-compartmental analysis was used to derive different PK parameters of TAC for the three groups. When CUR was co-administered at both concentrations, insignificant statistically small changes between the control and testing groups were found. Our results revealed that the differences for the three groups in PK parameters as C<sub>max</sub>, t<sub>max</sub>, ke, AUC<sub>0-6</sub> and AUC<sub>0-?</sub> were statistically insignificant (P&gt;0.05). In conclusion, it has been found that CUR at the experimented doses does not affect the PK of TAC. Further confirmation of our findings is requiered before these results can be applied in patient care.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2022-06-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Iraqi Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences ( P-ISSN 1683 - 3597 E-ISSN 2521 - 3512) In silico, In vitro studies of Anti-Oxidant and Anthelminthic Abilities of Phytoconstituents from Rhynchosia cana (Wild.) DC. 2021-10-21T14:19:09+00:00 Praveena Yempada Arya Lakshmi Marrisetti Ganga Rao Battu <p>Helminthiasis is a significant economic burden on grazing cattle. Increased resistance to currently available synthetic anthelmintics used to treat helminthiasis, and anthelmintic residues in meat and dairy products pose a significant worldwide health threat. These obstacles require the development of new anthelmintics capable of combating drug resistance while also exhibiting improved safety profiles. <em>Rhynchosia cana</em> (Fabaceae) is a herb that has historically been used as a worm expeller. To evaluate the phytochemical profile and explore the anti-oxidant and anthelmintic effects of different extracts of <em>Rhynchosia cana</em> (<em>R. cana</em>) by <em>In silico </em>and <em>In vitro</em> methods. Using standardised chemical tests as defined in the literature, phytochemical research was carried out. Using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and Hydrogen peroxide (H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2)</sub> radicals scavenging assay, <em>In vitro</em> free radical scavenging behaviour of different extracts was quantitatively estimated, whereas <em>In-vitro</em> anthelmintic activity was measured against <em>Pheretima posthuma </em>(<em>P. posthuma</em>) (Annelida). The molecular docking analysis was then carried out to establish compounds with good efficiency for anti-oxidant activity against the catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase and tubulin-colchicine enzyme for anthelmintic activity. Furthermore, ADME/T profiles have been tested by ADMET SAR. The various extracts of <em>R cana</em> potentially inhibited the reactive oxygen species (ROS) and possessed anti-oxidant activity. In anti-oxidant assays, the IC<sub>50</sub> values ranged from 62.08 to 440.08 μg/mL for PERC, EARC, and MERC. All the extracts demonstrated anthelmintic behaviour on <em>P. posthuma</em> that was dose-dependent and statistically relevant. On the other side, molecular docking analysis reveals that Gallocatechin has the best fitness score of -7.1 kcal/mol with tubulin-colchicine enzyme; Rhynchosin, Luteolin-3',4'-dimethyl ether, Isoorientin and Orientin has the best fitness scores with different targets related to the oxidation process. In addition, all compounds were in the array of expected properties to fulfil the Lipinski law of five to be accepted as drug-like potential. The observation indicates that the <em>R. cana</em> possesses anti-oxidant and anthelmintic activity <em>In vitro</em> and <em>In silico</em> assays. However, further research was needed to elucidate their primary molecular mechanism of action, safety, toxicity, and bioavailability.</p> 2022-06-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Iraqi Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences ( P-ISSN 1683 - 3597 E-ISSN 2521 - 3512) Phytochemical screening and Free radicals scavenging activity of leaves of Echinops polyceras Boiss. grown in Syria 2021-07-11T19:38:10+00:00 Issa Al-Assaf Mays Khazem <p>Free radicals are reactive compounds, their excessive production is considered to be an important cause of oxidative damage in biomolecules causing degenerative diseases. Polyphenols are one of the most important groups of secondary metabolites of plants, which have an antioxidant activity depending on their properties as hydrogen donors. Echinops polyceras Boiss. (Asteraceae) is one of Echinops genus species that spread in Syria, Lebanon, and Palestine. Phytochemicals found in this species leaves have been extracted with gradient polarity solvents, and primary screening of the secondary metabolites was established. The phenolic compounds and flavonoids contents were determined. The free radicals scavenging activity was evaluated for all extracts with DPPH• in a 96-well microplate. The specificity study indicates that ascorbic acid was absent, and reducing sugars were exist in the aqueous extract. The identification tests showed the presence of polyphenols like flavonoids and coumarins. The methanolic extract of the E. polyceras leaves was the most effective scavengers of free radicals (90.22% in 30 min) with phenolic compounds content 682.5 mg GAE/g of dried extract (DE) and flavonoids content 194.5 mg QE/ g DE. The chloroform extract was the least effective as free radical scavenging (60% in 30 min) as the phenolic compounds content was 278.5 mg GAE/g DE and flavonoids content 94 mg QE/ g DE. In conclusion, the phenolic compounds and flavonoids from Echinops polyceras Boiss. are effective in free radicals scavenging and protecting from diseases caused by oxidative stress.</p> 2022-06-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Iraqi Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences ( P-ISSN 1683 - 3597 E-ISSN 2521 - 3512) Flow Injection Spectrophotometric Technique for Determining of Genistein in Pure and Supplements Formulations Through Diazotization Coupling Reaction 2021-11-08T17:25:37+00:00 Farqid F.Mohammed Sadeem Subhi Abed Subhi Abed <p>Genistein (GEN) is The major isoflavone found in soybeans, has a number of cardiovascular health benefits, Postmenopausal syndrome and osteoporosis. A direct flow injection analysis method for estimation of (GEN) in pure and supplements formulation . This system is based on diazotization coupling reactions between procaine penciline (PR) and genistein in basic medium, they formed yellow dyes have maximum absorption at 416 nm. Calibration curve were constructed over different GEN concentrations, linearity for GEN was 10-100 µg.mL-1 and detection limits of 1.51 ?g/mL. In the FIA technique, all analytical factors were analyzed and optimized. The established method was successfully used to determine GEN in the formulations of its supplement</p> 2022-06-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Iraqi Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences ( P-ISSN 1683 - 3597 E-ISSN 2521 - 3512) The Formulation and Evaluation of High-Fat Pellet on Lipid Profiles and Body Mass Index of Male Wistar Rats 2021-11-12T17:01:36+00:00 Rosnah Rosnah Nurpudji A. Taslim Andi Makbul Aman Irfan Idris Suryani As’ad Agussalim Buchari Burhananuddin Bahar Aminuddin Aminuddin Elly Wahyudin Gaga Irawan Nugraha <p>This study aimed to explore the manufacture of high-fat pellets for obesity induction diets in male Wistar rats and determined its effect on lipid profiles and body mass index. It was an experimental laboratory method with a post-test randomized control group. Formulation of high-fat pellets (HFD) and physico-chemical characteristics of pellets were conducted in September 2019. This study used about 28 male Wistar white rats, two months old, and 150-200 g body weight. Rats were acclimatized for seven days, then divided into four groups: 7 rats were given a standard feed of Confeed PARS CP594 (P0), and three groups (P1, P2, P3) were given high-fat feed (HFD FII) 30 g/head/day. The result showed that the mean fat content of Formula II pellets (HFD FII) was higher (25.44% ± 0.16) than Formula I pellet (HFD FI) (22.55% ± 0.16) and standard feed (3%). The mean of body weight and BMI of obesity induction rat groups (P1, P2, P3) were significantly higher than the standard rat group (P0) (p &lt;0.05). The results of the post-hoc LSD test between groups P1, P2, and P3 showed no difference in mean body weight and BMI (p&gt; 0.05). Feed consumption in the rat fed with HFD FII pellets was higher than the standard group (P0). It means that rats preferred the HFD FII pellets. The lipid profile of the obesity induction group showed higher total cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL, while the HDL levels were significantly lower than the standard feed group (P0). LSD post-hoc test results between P1, P2, and P3 showed no difference in the mean lipid profile (p&gt; 0.05).&nbsp; Giving HFD FII pellets, a source of fat from butter, full cream milk powder, and eggs of purebred chickens for eight weeks could make male Wistar rats obese and dyslipidemia</p> 2022-06-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Iraqi Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences ( P-ISSN 1683 - 3597 E-ISSN 2521 - 3512) Correlation between Seminal Fructosamine and Glycosylation Gap and Some Sex Hormones in the Young Infertile Male in Mosul City 2021-12-08T16:40:31+00:00 Muhammad Abdulgafoor Ahmed AlKataan Moamin Junaid Salim <p>Infertility represents a growing health problem in Mosul city and worldwide. Infertility defined as a failure to induce pregnancy after unprotected sexual intercourse for more than 12 months. Infertility in male is a multifactorial complex pathology that leads to different types of problems. This work try to explore the correlation between glycosylation gap and seminal fructosamine and another parameter in the young male patient in Mosul city. The study included 50 subjects with age range 19-29 year with BMI 18-26. The infertility group include 25 patients newly diagnosed with infertility before starting any treatment; have no infection and no structural abnormality. The control group included 25 healthy subjects. HbA1c, fructosamine, Serum and seminal Testosterone, estradiol and Testosterone/ estradiol. Plasma trace element as K, Mg and Zn also measured. There was a significant elevation in the glycosylation profile in the infertile male in compare to control (p&lt;0.05). There was a significant elevation in glycosylation gap in the infertile group (p&lt;0.01). Testosterone and Testosterone/ Estradiol ratio significantly reduced in the infertile group in comparison to control group (p&lt; 0.0004 and 0.0002 respectively). Serum and Seminal plasma Testosterone/ Estradiol ratio showed no significant changes between the two groups (p&gt;0.05). In conclusion, there was a significant positive correlation seminal plasma fructosamine and glycosylation gap in infertile male group.</p> 2022-06-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Iraqi Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences ( P-ISSN 1683 - 3597 E-ISSN 2521 - 3512) G Protein-Coupled Receptors: Undervalued Targets for Cancer Therapy 2021-07-03T15:57:28+00:00 Ismail Ibrahim Al-Janabi <p>Despite the G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) being the largest family of signalling proteins at the surface of cells, their potential to be targeted in cancer therapy is still under-utilised. This review highlights the contribution of these receptors to the process of oncogenesis and points to some likely challenges that might be encountered in targeting them. GPCR-signalling pathways are often complex and can be tissue-specific. Cancer cells hijack these communication networks to their proliferative advantage. The role of selected GPCRs in the different hallmarks of cancer is<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span>examined to highlight the complexity of targeting these receptors for therapeutic benefit. Our<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span>increasing knowledge of the mechanisms governing the molecular functions of GPCRs may help to identify new targets to treat specific types of cancers.</p> 2022-06-09T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Iraqi Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences (IJPS)