Iraqi Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences ( P-ISSN: 1683 - 3597 , E-ISSN : 2521 - 3512) 2022-01-11T00:00:00+00:00 IJPS Open Journal Systems <p>In 1979 the College of Pharmacy- Baghdad University established a semi-annual specialized scientific journal, under the name "Iraqi Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences". The aim of this journal is to support scientific knowledge, encourage scientific research and publication for the purposes of scientific promotion. The journal issued since its establishment until June/ 2020 Twenty nine volumes and Fifty issues.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> The Effect of Anabasis articulata Stems Extract on Lowering Intraocular Pressure in the Glaucoma Rat Model(Conference Paper )# 2021-09-09T14:51:06+00:00 Waleed K. Abdulsahib <p>High intraocular pressure (IOP) is a recognized risk factor for glaucoma and optic nerve injury, and it is one of the primary causes of vision loss globally. <em>Anabasis articulata</em> (AA) is a desert plant found in Iraq. The extract of AA is used to cure diabetes, fever, eczema, and kidney infections. The aim of the study is to evaluate the antioxidant effect of methanol extract of AA on intraocular pressure in the glaucoma rat model. Forty-two rats were allocated into seven groups, each with six animals:: group 1 (normal), group 2 (control), in which animals were induced to have elevated IOP by betamethasone suspension injection, groups 3,4 and 5 for evaluating the effect of 50,100 and 150 mg/kg/day of the tested extract, respectively, and the remaining two groups (group 6 and 7) for evaluating oral acetazolamide and topical timolol 0.5% respectively. Betamethasone was used for the induction. Measure the IOP every 2 days for 2 weeks. The daily dose of AA extract (50 mg/kg/day) for 6 days significantly reduces intraocular pressure (p ? 0.05), from (34.23± 0.58) to (32.83± 1.38) mmHg when compared with the control group. In group 4, IOP decreased significantly from (35.5±1.37) to (31.35±0.40) mmHg (p ? 0.05) after 1 week of treatment. In group 5, the significant (p? 0.001) IOP reduction from (35.66±0.39) to (31.88±0.74) mmHg started on day 6 and continued until the end of the experiment, reaching (24.53±0.53) mmHg (p? 0.001). The antioxidant and anti-angiogenic properties of AA make it a promising adjuvant treatment for glaucoma.</p> 2022-01-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Iraqi Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences ( P-ISSN: 1683 - 3597 , E-ISSN : 2521 - 3512) Rheological Investigation of Lipid Polymer Hybrid Nanocarriers for Oral Delivery of Felodipine (Conference Paper )# 2021-09-29T11:21:11+00:00 Hayder Kadhim Drais Ahmed Abbas Hussein <p>The rheological behavior among factors that are present in Stokes law can be used to control the stability of the colloidal dispersion system. The felodipine lipid polymer hybrid nanocarriers&nbsp; (LPHNs) is an interesting colloidal dispersion system that is used for rheological characteristic analysis. The LPHNs compose of polymeric components and lipids. This research aims to prepare oral felodipine LPHNs to investigate the effect of independent variables on the rheological behavior of the nanosystem. The microwave-based technique was used to prepare felodipine LPHNs (H1-H9) successfully. All the formulations enter the characterization process for particle size and PDI to ascertain the colloidal properties of the prepared nanosystem then use coaxial rotational digital rheometer for rheological evaluation. The outcomes show that all felodipine LPHNs formulations (H1-H9) had a nanosize and homogenous structure that ascertain colloidal features of the nanodispersion system. The rheogram chart indicates that all of the felodipine LPHNs formulations (H1-H9) show pseudoplastic flow (non-Newtonian flow) that have shear-thinning property. The microwave-based method prepares felodipine LPHNs formulations (H1-H9) that show excellent physical texture that ascertains its ability as a technique for the preparation of nanoparticles. All of the felodipine LPHNs formulations (H1-H9) show pseudoplastic flow that supports the physical stability of the nanosystem.</p> 2022-01-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Iraqi Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences ( P-ISSN: 1683 - 3597 , E-ISSN : 2521 - 3512) Permeability Enhancement of Methotrexate Transdermal Gel using Eucalyptus oil, Peppermint Oil and Olive Oil(Conference Paper )# 2021-10-09T07:05:55+00:00 Jamal Ali Ashoor Jinan M. Mohsin Hussein Mohammed Mohsin Basam W. Mahde Mowafaq M. Gareeb <p>Abstract</p> <p>Objective: the idea of this study to improve transdermal permeability of Methotrexate using eucalyptus oil, olive oil and peppermint oil as enhancers.<br>Method: eucalyptus oil (2% and 4%), peppermint oil (2% and 4%) and olive oil (2% and 4%) all used as natural enhancers to develop transdermal permeability of Methotrexate via gel formulation. The gel was subjected to many physiochemical properties tests. In-vitro release and permeability studies for the drug were done by Franz cell diffusion across synthetic membrane, kinetic model was studied via korsmeyer- peppas equation.<br>Result: the results demonstrate that safe, nonirritant or cause necrosis to rats' skin and stable till 60 days gel was successfully formulated.<br>Methotrexate penetration alone without enhancer is only about 20%, while using enhancers reach to 85%, 99% and 90% with eucalyptus oil 4%, peppermint oil 4% and olive oil 4% respectively after 24 hours.<br>Conclusion: Methotrexate transdermal gel was prepared and evaluated fruitfully in-vitro with a good permeation across semipermeable membrane. The results indicated that using of peppermint oil as enhancer have superiority to enhance the transdermal permeation of the Methotrexate.</p> 2022-01-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Iraqi Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences ( P-ISSN: 1683 - 3597 , E-ISSN : 2521 - 3512) Evaluating the Impact of Pharmacist Counselling for Asthmatic Children at Karbala Teaching Hospital for Children: An Interventional Prospective Study (Conference Paper )# 2021-10-13T16:17:11+00:00 Mohammed Al-Musawi Zinah M. Anwer <p>Asthma is one of the most common chronic, non-communicable diseases affecting children worldwide. The estimated prevalence of pediatric asthma in Iraq is 15.8%. Physiologic, inflammatory and structural factors contribute to the development of asthma. Assessment and monitoring of asthma control can be done by a validated children asthma control test (CACT). Management of asthma must address three components which are an appropriate management plan, the most appropriate medication if necessary, and the use of safe and effective medication. The management plan should consider patient counseling and education about the definition of asthma, signs, and symptoms, the pathophysiology of asthma, common triggers for asthma and how can avoid them, what are the rescue medication and the controller one, proper inhaler techniques, and how to monitor asthma control. Patient education accounts for 90% of success and this can be achieved by an active collaboration among health care providers. This is a prospective interventional study that aims at evaluating pharmacist counseling for asthmatic children. The study involved 105 participants whose consent was taken and underwent a face-to-face interview about asthma counseling and inhaler technique for those who use it. Ninety-two eligible participants remained. Their CACT was recorded at the first visit and then followed up weekly for one month either by phone or physical to assess asthma control. In the fourth week, a CACT was recorded and compared to the first one before intervention. There was a significant improvement in CACT after providing the counselling and weekly follow up.</p> 2022-01-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Iraqi Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences ( P-ISSN: 1683 - 3597 , E-ISSN : 2521 - 3512) Adherence and Beliefs to Adjuvant Hormonal Therapy in Patients with Breast Cancer: A Cross-Sectional Study (Conference Paper) # 2021-11-11T15:04:41+00:00 Anwar Habeeb Saad Ihsan rabeea Haider Salih <p><strong>&nbsp; </strong>Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women over the world. To reducing reoccurrence and mortality rates, adjuvant hormonal therapy (AHT) is used for a long period. The major barrier to the effectiveness of the treatment is adherence. Adherence to medicines among patients is challenging. Patient beliefs in medications can be positively or negatively correlated to adherence<strong>. Objectives</strong>: To investigate the extent of adherence and factors affecting adherence, as well as to investigate the association between beliefs and adherence in women with breast cancer taking AHT<strong>. Method</strong>: A cross-sectional study included 124 Iraqi women with breast cancer recruited from Middle Euphrates Cancer Center. Morisky medication adherence scale (MMAS) and beliefs about medication questionnaires (BMQ) are used to assess adherence and beliefs respectively. <strong>Result:</strong> 25% of women were fully adherent (MMAS = 8). 83.06% of all women developed side effects from medications received. Side effects and unemployed women were significantly associated with non-adherence. Additionally, there is no significant association between beliefs in medications and adherence. <strong>conclusion </strong>The enormous percent of poor adherence caused by side effects suggests the need for interventions by educating patients about the importance of their treatment and how to overcome side effects.</p> 2022-01-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Iraqi Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences ( P-ISSN: 1683 - 3597 , E-ISSN : 2521 - 3512) Evaluation of Community Pharmacists Knowledge, Attitude and Practice towards Modified Release Dosage Forms 2021-10-04T16:29:49+00:00 Noor Yousif Albassam Amenah Mohammed Suhair Murtada <p><strong>Purpose:</strong>To evaluate knowledge, practice and attitude of community pharmacists in Basra regarding modified release dosage forms which are widely used for many therapeutic purposes in pharmacy practice.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong>The current study was conducted among certified pharmacists in Basra governorate- south of Iraq. Data collection was carried out by a questionnaire.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong>A total number of 175 community pharmacists responded to the questionnaire. The majority worked in OTC based dispensing pharmacies located in the center of the city. Most respondents missed K1 and were unable to state the difference between different types of modified products. There was a major positive agreement towards medical representatives' rule in promoting the prescribing of modified release products by physicians. Avoiding crushing and breaking of solid oral modified release drugs were identified by the majority of participants. Correlation analysis showed a 22.8 correlation coefficient between knowledge and attitude which was statistically significant. Males showed statistically significant higher knowledge and practice scores than females.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong>The conduction of a brief educational program would be very beneficial in bringing basic theoretical knowledge with practicing points of interest and promote a more positive attitude toward this unique class of novel drug delivery system.</p> 2022-01-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Iraqi Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences ( P-ISSN: 1683 - 3597 , E-ISSN : 2521 - 3512) A Pharmacoeconomics Study for Anticoagulants used for Hospitalized COVID-19 Patients in Al-Najaf Al-Ashraf city –Iraq(Conference Paper )# 2021-11-02T15:43:53+00:00 Fatimah Baqer Alqubbanchi Fadya Yaqoob Al-Hamadani <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p><strong>Background:</strong> The novel coronavirus 2 (SARS?CoV?2) pandemic is a pulmonary disease, which leads to cardiac, hematologic, and renal&nbsp;complications. Anticoagulants are used for COVID-19 infected patients because the infection increases the risk of thrombosis. The world health organization (WHO), recommend prophylaxis dose of anticoagulants: (Enoxaparin or unfractionated Heparin for hospitalized patients with COVID-19 disease. This has created an urgent need to identify effective medications for COVID-19 prevention and treatment. The value of COVID-19 treatments is affected by cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) to inform relative value and how to best maximize social welfare through evidence-based pricing decisions.</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong></p> <p>compare the clinical outcome and the costs of two anticoagulants (heparin and (enoxaparin)) used to treat hospitalized patients with COVID-19 infection.</p> <p><strong>Patients and method:</strong></p> <p>The study was a retrospective review of medical records of adult, non-pregnant, COVID-19 infected hospitalized patients who had baseline and last outcome measurements at Alamal Epidemiology Center, Al-Najaf city from (Augast 2020 to June 2021).</p> <p><strong>The outcome </strong>measures included D-dimer, length of stay (LOS), and mortality rate. Only the cost of the medical treatment was considered in the analysis.</p> <p>The pharmacoeconomics analysis was done in three different cost-effectiveness analysis methods. Microsoft Excel spreadsheet and Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software (SPSS), was used to conduct statistical analysis. Kaplan Meier test was used to compare the mortality rate. T-TEST was used to compare the outcomes of the two groups.</p> <p><strong>Results and discussion:</strong></p> <p>two groups were compared, the first group consists of 72 patients who received heparin, and the second group consists of 72 patients who received enoxaparin.</p> <p>COVID-19 infected patients had a higher abnormal average D-dimer (2534.675 ng/dl). No significant differences between both genders with regards to the basal average D-dimer (males= 2649.95 ng/dl, females= 2374.1mg/dl, P-value&gt;0.05). There was a significant difference between patient's ages 60 years and patients &lt;60. (3177.33 ng/dl, 1763.06 ng/dl, P-value &lt;0.05). It seems that, higher D-dimer levels were associated with a higher mortality rate (died=3166.263 ng/dl, survived= 1729.94 ng/dl, P-value &lt;0.05). Heparin was more effective in decreasing D-dimer levels than enoxaparin which inversely increased the D-dimer levels (-24.4 ng/dl/day, +154.701 ng/dl/day, P-value &lt;0.05). Additionally, heparin was more effective in increasing the survival rate compared to enoxaparin (55% vs, 35%, P-value&lt;0.05). Heparin was associated with a longer duration of stay in hospital than enoxaparin but with no significant difference (13.7 days, 12.3 days, P-value &gt;0.05).</p> <p>Concerning the cost, treatment with heparin cost less than enoxaparin (2.08 U.S $, 9.44 U.S $)/per patient/per day.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>:</p> <p>Originator heparin was a more cost-effective anticoagulant therapy compared to originator enoxaparin, it was associated with a lower cost and better effect, treatment with Heparin resulted in positive INB= 11.3, where a positive result means that heparin is more cost-effective than Enoxaparin. All three methods of pharmacoeconomic analysis decide that heparin was more cost-effective than enoxaparin in treating COVID-19 infected patients.</p> 2022-01-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Iraqi Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences ( P-ISSN: 1683 - 3597 , E-ISSN : 2521 - 3512)