The Possible Cardio-Protective Effects of Ethanolic Artichoke Extract against 5- Fluorouracil Induced Cardiac Toxicity in Rats
Cardiac toxicity can occur during the therapy with several cytotoxic drugs, including 5- Fluorouracil (5- FU). It is an antimetabolite that acts during the S phase of the cell cycle and is activated by thymidine phosphorylase into fluorodeoxyuridylate (5 fluoro 2'deoxyuridine 5'monophosphate, 5-FdUMP) that inhibits thymidylate synthase, thus preventing DNA synthesis that leads to imbalanced cell growth and ultimately cell death. It is still a widely used anticancer drug, since 1957. The present study aimed to evaluate the possible cardio-protective effects of ethanolic artichoke extract (Cynara scolymus L.) against 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) induced cardio-toxicity in rats by evaluating serum levels of Alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and creatine kinase enzymes. Methods: Twenty -four female albino rats were randomly divided into 4 groups each group with 6 rats. Group I: (negative control) received oral daily dose of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) (2 ml/kg /day) for 10 successive days. Group II: (positive control) received oral daily dose of DMSO (2 ml/kg /day) for 10 successive days and subsequently administered single dose of 5-FU (150 mg/kg) by intraperitoneal injection on 8th day in association with DMSO. Groups III: received oral daily dose of ethanolic artichoke extract (200 mg/kg/day) for 10 successive days. Groups IV: received oral daily dose of ethanolic artichoke extract (200 mg/kg/day) for 10 successive days with subsequently administered single intraperitoneal dose of 5-FU (150 mg/kg) on 8th day in association with ethanolic extract. Results: Treatment of ethanolic artichoke extract prior 5-FU intoxication significantly attenuate the increase of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and creatine kinase (CK) enzymes activities caused by 5-FU-induced cardio-toxicity in rats. Conclusions: Results of the present finding suggest that the ethanolic artichoke extract may be an effective modulator in mitigating 5-FU induced cardiac toxicity in rats.
Keywords: Ethanolic artichoke extract, 5-Fluorouracil, Cardio-protection, AST, ALT and CK.