Isolation, Structural Characterization and Identification of Major Constituents in Ephedra foliata Naturally Growing in Iraq by TLC, GC-MS and UPLC-ESI-MS/MS

  • Ahmed S. Khaleefa M.Sc. student
  • Maha N. Hamad
Keywords: Ephedra, Gas chromatography mass spectrometry, Ultra-performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass/ mass and 6-hydroxy kynurenic acid.



   The aerial part of Ephedra foliata Family Ephedraceae have long been used in traditional medicine and now Ephedra species have medicinal, ecological, and commercial value. The variety of pharmacological actions of this plant is due to its chemical constituents. Ephedrine and
related alkaloids; are the newly potential medicinal value of Ephedra supplements for weight loss or performance improvement. Other pharmacological actions like antibacterial and antifungal effects of the phenolic acid compounds, the immunosuppressive action of the polysaccharides, and the antitumor action of flavonoids. The genus of this plant wildly distributed throughout asia, america, europe, and north africa.
 Aim of study:  this study is to screen the phytochemical constituents due to the importance of pharmacological actions of this plant.

Methods:  the aerial part of E. foliata was macerated in 80% ethanol for 9 days and fractionated by n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol. The n-hexane, chloroform, n-butanol fractions, and isolated compounds were analyzed by GC-MS, TLC, UPLC ESI MS/MS.

Results and discussion: The various chromatographic and spectroscopic results indicate  the presence of a different type of phytochemicals like ephedrine, 6hka, vicenin 2 and quercetin 3-sophoroside-7-rhamnoside.