Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Gingko Biloba Extract in Cotton Pellet-Induced Granuloma in Rats: A comparative Study with Prednisolone and Dexamethasone


  • Ahmed Azad Kareem
  • Tavga Ahmed Aziz University of Sulaimani/ College of Pharmacy/ Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology
  • Zheen Aorahman Ahmed
  • Hemn Hassan Othman
  • Saad Abdulrahman Hussain



Keywords: GKB extract, dexamethasone, prednisolone, granuloma, inflammatory markers.


The current study was designed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of GKB in the rat model of granulomatous inflammation. Thirty rats were distributed into five groups:  The first group served as negative control group that received distilled water (DW) only without inducting inflammation, positive control group; treated with DW with the induction of inflammation and they were assigned to cotton pellet-induced granuloma, ginkgo biloba (GKB) treated group (200mg/kg/day), dexamethasone-treated group (1mg/kg), and Prednisolone treated group (5mg/kg). All the treatments were given orally for seven consecutive days.  On day eight, the rats were anesthetized and the pellets together with granulation tissue were carefully removed and made free from extraneous tissue. The weight and the percent of the exudate and granuloma were determined and samples of the tissues were sent for histopathological examination. Blood samples were collected by cardiac puncture and used for the analysis of the inflammatory markers: TNF-alfa, IL10, VCAM-1, and hs-CRP. The study revealed a significant reduction in the weight and the percent of exudate (p-value = 0.019), (17%) and granuloma (p-value = 0.013), (20%) by GKB which was comparable to that produced by prednisolone. All the treatment groups showed a significant reduction in serum TNF-?, VCAM-1, and hs-CRP concentration compared with the positive control. The histopathological finding revealed pronounced improvement. In the current study, GKB was effective in attenuating the level of inflammation by decreasing the exudate, granuloma, and inflammatory markers. The underlying mechanisms could be the inhibitory effect on the expression of the inflammatory cytokines and endothelial adhesion molecule. These findings suggest GKB as a good contender to be tested in the treatment of inflammatory diseases.



Hussain T, Tan B, Yin Y, Blachier F, Tossou MCB, Rahu N. Oxidative Stress and Inflammation: What Polyphenols Can Do for Us? Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2016;2016(1):1-9. doi:10.1155/2016/7432797

Maciel TT, Merle E, Fricot A, et al. PATHOLOGY INFLAMMATION. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2014;29(suppl 3):iii25-iii26. doi:10.1093/ndt/gfu119

Chen L, Deng H, Cui H, Fang J, Zuo Z. Inflammatory responses and inflammation-associated diseases in organs. Oncotarget. 2018;9(6):7204-7218.

Ghasemian M, Owlia S, Owlia MB. Review of Anti-Inflammatory Herbal Medicines. Adv Pharmacol Sci. 2016;2016(Article ID 9130979):1-11. doi:10.1155/2016/9130979

Samuel S, Nguyen T, Choi HA. Pharmacologic Characteristics of Corticosteroids. J Neurocrit Care. 2017;10(2):53-59. doi:10.18700/jnc.170035

Yasir M, Sonthalia S. Corticosteroid Adverse Effects. StatPearls Publishing; 2019. Accessed September 26, 2020.

Singh S, Sedha S. Medicinal Plants and Their Pharmacological Aspects. FPI. 2017;1(4):156-170.

Kaur S, Sharma N, Nehru B. Anti-inflammatory effects of Ginkgo biloba extract against trimethyltin-induced hippocampal neuronal injury. Inflammopharmacology. 2018;26(1):87-104. doi:10.1007/s10787-017-0396-2

Lim S, Yoon JW, Kang SM, et al. Egb761, a ginkgo biloba extract, is effective against atherosclerosis in vitro, and in a rat model of type 2 diabetes. PLoS One. 2011;6(6):1-10. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0020301

Cheng D, Liang B, Li Y. Antihyperglycemic effect of ginkgo biloba extract in streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats. Biomed Res Int. 2013;2013(Article ID 162724):7 pages. doi:10.1155/2013/162724

Rhee KJ, Lee CG, Kim SW, Gim DH, Kim HC, Jung BD. Extract of Ginkgo biloba ameliorates streptozotocin- induced type 1 diabetes mellitus and high-fat diet- induced type 2 diabetes mellitus in mice. Int J Med Sci. 2015;12(12):987-994. doi:10.7150/ijms.13339

Diamond BJ, Shiflett SC, Feiwel N, et al. Ginkgo biloba extract: Mechanisms and clinical indications. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2000;81(5):668-678. doi:10.1053/mr.2000.3840

Zeybek N, Gorgulu S, Yagci G, et al. The effects of gingko biloba extract (EGb 761) on experimental acute pancreatitis. J Surg Res. 2003;115(2):286-293. doi:10.1016/S0022-4804(03)00190-2